A non-cash contribution, as opposed to a cash match. It is typically the calculated value of personnel, goods, and services, including direct and indirect costs. The match can include donated goods or services in the form of labor, space, vehicles, training, supplies, equipment and more. It does not include the routine activities of an entity that would occur regardless of the match requirement. Rates for volunteer services should be consistent with similar paid workers. In a broadband context, these can include access to rights of way, pole attachments, conduits, easements, or access to other types of infrastructure. BEAD matching funds can be cash or in-kind contributions.